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Pakistan Army
Pakistan Army
The Pakistan Army is the branch of service military uniform Pakistani military land operations managers. The Pakistani army has been created after the independence of Pakistan in 1947. It is currently headed by General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani. The Pakistan Army is a volunteer professional fighting force. According to the International Institute for Strategic Studies has an active force of 620,000 people in 2012. Pakistan's Constitution contains a provision for conscription, but it has never been imposed.

Since independence, the Army has been involved in four wars with neighboring India and Afghanistan border disputes with several. Presence maintained division and brigade strength in some Arab countries in the Arab-Israeli wars, and with the help of the Coalition in the first Gulf War. Other major operations undertaken include the Army Operation Thunderstorm Operation Rah-black-and-e-Nijat. Apart from conflicts, the Army has played an active role in UN missions and played a major role in rescuing trapped American soldiers in Mogadishu, Somalia in 1993 in Operation Gothic Serpent.

Pakistani president is the commander in chief of the army.

The Pakistan Army is the land armed forces branch of Pakistan.
Armed forces to defend under the direction of federal subject of Pakistan against external aggression or threat of war, and the law, to act in favor of the civil power when called upon to do so.
History of Pakistan Army
General Ayub Khan arrives at the head of the Pakistani army in 1951

The Pakistani army on 30 June 1947 Created by partition with the British Indian Army. Soon to be created Dominion of Pakistan received six armored artillery, eight eight infantry regiments compared to the 12 armored artillery, 40 and 21 infantry regiments that went to India. Fearing that India would take over the state of Kashmir, was irregular, scouts and tribal groups in Kashmir, the Maharaja of Kashmir and Kashmir against Hindus and Sikhs in 1947, even though the Maharaja chose to join the Union of India. This led to the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 resulted. Regular army units joined the invasion later, but it stopped after moving the refusal of the Chief of Staff, British General Sir Frank Messervy responsible to obey the orders of the Pakistani leader Jinnah the army in Kashmir. A cease-fire on UN intervention with Pakistan occupies the northwestern part of Kashmir and India will do the rest. Later, in the 1950s was the amount of the Pakistani military important economic and military aid from the United States and Great Britain after signing two mutual defense treaties, the Baghdad Pact, the treaty form LED Treaty Organization Central and South-East Asia Organization (SEATO) in 1954. This greatly expanded the Army from its modest beginnings.

The single division headquarters that went to Pakistan was the seventh. 8 and 9 Divisions were raised in 1947, Articles 10, 12 and 14 were increased in 1948. 15 Div was raised in 1950. Sometime before 1954, 6 Division was raised and 9 Division disbanded. 6 Division was disbanded at some point after 1954 as U.S. assistance was only for one armored infantry divisions and six available.
Main article: Indo-Pakistani War of 1965

The Pakistani army has taken over poiliticians first as General Ayub Khan came to power through a coup without bloodshed in 1958. He formed Convention Muslim League which includes the first elected Prime Minister of Pakistan Zulfaqar Ali Bhutto. Tensions with India continued in the 1960s and a brief border skirmish was conducted near the Rann of Kutch area in April 1965. The Pakistani army launched Operation Gibraltar, an attempt to remove Indian forces in the disputed territory of Indian-administered Kashmir. The Indian Army fought try undisputed Pakistani territory and the objectives of the Palestinian Authority to take control enter the Indian-administered Kashmir to defending Pakistani territory from invading Indian forces. Finally reached a ceasefire agreement. The war ended in the Tashkent Declaration and is regarded by neutral sources to have a draw. After the Library of Congress Country Studies Division of the Federal Research United States [6] The war was militarily inconclusive, each side held prisoners and some of the areas belonging to the other. Losses were suffered relatively heavy on the Indian side with 83 aircraft and 15,000 men for 547 tanks on the Pakistani side, 20 military aircraft, 200 tanks and 3800.

The Pakistani army has carried out a famous victory, because it addressed a draw against a force much larger sovereign territory of Pakistan at various points, the PA is not expected and was not made available or provided for power. Indian sources disagree and call the result a victory for India. Very effective support of the Pakistan Air Force, which was unexpected, is often also have neutralized the advantage of the inherent strengths of India. The accurate artillery fire provided by the PA artillery units is also stated to have played a role.

An uprising against General Ayub Khan in 1968 and 1969 resulted in Ayub Khan as president and army chief in favor of General Yahya Khan, remove the borrowing powers in 1969. Division 16 Division 18 Division 23 and was finally increased from 1966 to 1969 and 9 Division was re-raised during this period.
Main article: 1971 Bangladesh atrocities, Operation Searchlight and the Liberation War of Bangladesh

During the reign of General Yahya Khan, the people protesting in East Pakistan had imposed against various political and economic inequalities, which erupted on them by West Pakistan and large-scale disturbances in East Pakistan. During the operations against the rebels, called Operation Searchlight, a faction of the Pakistan Army under General Yahya Khan was responsible for atrocities Bangladesh 1971. Since the start of Operation Searchlight on 25 March 1971 and due to the liberation war of Bangladesh, there have been numerous violations of human rights in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) perpetrated by the Pakistani army, with the support of local political and religious militias, particularly against Hindus. Time reported a high U.S. official as saying: "This is the most incredible, calculated from the time the Nazis in Poland.

The original plan was to take control of major cities March 26, 1971, and then eliminating all opposition, political or military, within one month. Prolonged Bengali resistance was not anticipated by Pakistani main phase was completed planners.The Operation Searchlight with the fall of the last major city in the hands of Bengal in mid May

16th December 1971, Lieutenant General AAK Niazi, Commander of Pakistan signed the armed forces in East Pakistan instrument Surrender.Over 93,000 Pakistani troops surrendered to the Indian forces, still the largest bailout since the War World.

In 1997 RJ Rummel published a book on the site, called "Statistics democide: genocide and mass murder since 1900", referred to in Chapter 8, "Statistics of democide Pakistan estimates, calculations and sources" see 1971 liberation war of Bangladesh. Rummel wrote:

East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) [President of Pakistan, General Agha Mohammed Yahya Khan and his top generals] also planned to murder its Bengali intellectual elite, cultural and political. They also planned to indiscriminately kill hundreds of thousands of Hindus and drive the rest of India. And they planned to destroy its economic base to ensure that would subordinate to West Pakistan for at least a generation. This plan can be considered genocide.
According to Major (r) Agha Humayun Amin, Pakistan Army commanders high command had not seriously Indian invasion of East Pakistan, seen in December 1971 because it was presumed that the Indian military would not risk Chinese or U.S. intervention . Maj Mazhar states that do not recognize the PA commanders that the Chinese not to intervene in the winter months from November to December 1971, resulting in a Himalayan snow passes and the United States made no real effort to persuade India against attack in East Pakistan.

A Pakistan International Airlines flight was sent. For Zulfikar Ali Bhutto from New York, the choice at the time, Pakistan has presented the case to the Security Council of the United Nations on the crisis in East Pakistan, Bhutto returned home Dec. 18, 1971. On December 20, the presidential palace in Rawalpindi where he took over two positions from Yahya Khan, President and Chief Martial Law was adopted. This was the first civilian Chief Martial Law in Pakistan.
Two AH-1S Cobra attack helicopters of the armed wing of the Pakistan Aviation AVN Base, Multan. They were sold to Pakistan by the United States to defend during the Soviet-Afghan war, Pakistan against a possible Soviet attack.

In 1977, organized a coup d'état led by General Zia ul-Haq and the government was overthrown. This led to the hanging of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto led, after he was tried and proclaimed guilty of conspiracy elected murdering a politician named Kasuri by Zia judges. Zia ul-Haq broke his promise to hold elections within 90 days and ruled as a military dictator until his death in a plane crash in 1988. General Mohammad Iqbal Khan was a joint chief from 1980 to 1984 and was director of martial law during this period.

In the 1970s, the Pakistani army has been involved in the fight against the insurgency in Balochistan. Baloch factions, some people have with the indirect support of the USSR, independence, or at least more provincial rights. The uprising was carried out at the request of the Bhutto government but the Army suffered heavy losses. After Bhutto was filed, the province returned to normalcy under General Rahimuddin.

In the 1980s, the Pakistani military and the United States worked with weapons, ammunition and aid to the Afghan mujahideen fighting intelligence. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan The U.S. military Modern equipment to Pakistan.

During the first Gulf War troops from the Pakistan army was in Saudi Arabia against Iraqi retaliation possible. While the Pakistani military has seen little effect on its performance has been remarkable. 153 Lt AirDefence (GM / SP) Regiment used to Tabuk scored several hits on the number of Iraqi Scud missiles and provided all the troops Protection Day Air Defense in Saudi Arabia in the region.

In October 1999, after the Kargil War ended with unconditional withdrawal of the Pakistani forces from the Indian controlled peaks, the Pakistan Army lost a democratically elected government for the fourth time, which apply additional sanctions against Pakistan, General Pervez Musharraf, who took power in a coup without bloodshed. But this time Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif fired Musharraf on his way to Pakistan from Colombo. He rejected the army chief General Ziauddin Butt and appointed as army chief Musharraf when the plane was in the air. It was not enough, the plane was not allowed to land at the Karachi airport and barricaded the door. Corps commanders moved quickly across Pakistan, particularly in Karachi and Islamabad. Muzaffar Usmani Brigadiar took control of the Karachi Airport and arrested the Inspector General of Police Sindh, Rana Maqbool Ahmed. Musharraf resigned as president in August 2008. On 30 July 2009 the Supreme Court of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf that the imposition of a state of emergency in 2007 was unconstitutional.

After the September 11 attacks in the United States joined the war in Pakistan against terrorism and helped nab U.S. forces in breaking relations with the Taliban and immediately insert 72,000 troops along Pakistan's western border or kill Taliban and Al Qaeda fighters fleeing Afghanistan. In the face northwest Pakistan first its troops in military bases and forts in the tribal areas. In May 2004, there were clashes between Pakistani troops and al-Qaeda and other militants joined local rebels and pro-Taliban forces. However, the offensive was poorly coordinated and the Pakistani Army suffered heavy losses, while public support for the attack quickly evaporated. After a conflict of two years, from 2004 to 2006, the Pakistani military negotiated a truce with the tribes of the region in which it has committed itself to stop hunting Al Qaeda members, the Talibanization of the region and stop attacks in Afghanistan and Pakistan. However, the militants did not market share and began to regroup and rebuild their strength in the last two years of the conflict.

The militants took over the Red Mosque in Islamabad. After a six-month battle confrontation erupted again in July 2007 when the Pakistani Army has decided to use force to end the Lal Masjid threat. Once the process is completed, beat the newly formed Pakistani Taliban, the militant groups are all based in FATA vowed revenge and launched a series of attacks and suicide bombings in northwest Pakistan and cities of Pakistan including Karachi, in 2007.

The militants then expanded their base of operations and moved into the neighboring Swat, where Sharia law was introduced. The Pakistani army has launched an offensive to retake the Swat Valley in 2007, but the militants who had fled into the mountains and waited before they leave the valley again to clear. The militants then launched another wave of terrorist attacks in Pakistan. The Pakistani government and military tried another peace deal with militants in the Swat Valley in 2008. This has been heavily criticized in the West as a resignation activists. After initially agreed to surrender if Islamic law was implemented, the Pakistani Taliban used Swat later start as a springboard for new attacks in neighboring regions, reaching less than 60 kilometers (37 miles) to Islamabad .

Public opinion is firmly against the Pakistani Taliban. This review was after the release of a video showing the flogging of a girl by the Pakistani Taliban said in the Swat Valley. Similar events and terrorist attacks finally forced the Pakistani army a decisive attack against the Taliban occupying Swat Valley in April 2009 after launching the orders of the political leadership. After heavy fighting in the Swat valley largely pacified by July 2009, but they remained isolated from the Taliban in the region.

The next phase of Pakistani Army's offensive was the formidable Waziristan region. A U.S. drone attack killed the leader of the Pakistani Taliban, Baitullah Mehsud in August. A power struggle engulfed the Pakistani Taliban in September, but in October a new leader had emerged, Hakimullah Mehsud. Under his leadership, the Pakistani Taliban killed another wave of terrorist attacks in Pakistan, hundreds of people. After a few weeks of air strikes, artillery and mortars, was 30,000 soldiers in South Waziristan, in an attack on three fronts. The Pakistani army took South Waziristan and is currently thinking of expanding the campaign in North Waziristan.

In April 2012, an avalanche struck the sixth light infantry battalion based in North Siachen sector Ghyari, trapping soldiers 135th


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