Travel Guide of Pakistan


Forex Development History

Foreign exchange development history - exchange market evolution foreign exchange development history - exchange market evolution gold remittance system and Bretton woods agreement
In 1967, a Chicago bank rejected to provide pound loan to a professor named Milton Friedman, because his purposed was to use this fund to sell short the British pound. Mr. Friedman realized excessively that the price ratio from the British pound to US dollar at that time was high, he wanted first to sell the British pound, after the British pound fell he buys back the British pound to repay the bank again. This family bank rejects the loan offer based on the "Bretton woods Agreement" which was established 20 years ago. This agreement has fixed the various countries' currency to US dollar exchange rate, and the price ratio between the U.S dollar and the gold is also fixed to 35 US dollars to each ounce of gold.
The Bretton Woods Agreement was signed in 1944, the purposed was to prevent the currency to escape between countries, and also to limit the international speculation, thus to stabilize the international currency. Before this agreement was signed, the gold remittance standard system which was widely used since 1876 - was leading the international economy system until the First World War. In the gold remittance system, the currency was at the stable level under the support of the gold price. The gold remittance system has abolished the old time king and the ruler which depreciates the currency value unlawfully, which will lead to inflation.
But, the gold remittance standard system is certainly imperfect. Along with a country economic potentiality enhancement, it can import massive products from overseas, until it exhausts the gold reserve of certain country. It resulted the supply of the currency reduces, the interest rate raises, the economic activity will start to decline until it reaches the recession limit. Finally, the commodity price falls to the valley, gradually attracts other countries to stream in, massively rushes to purchase this country commodity. This will pour gold into this country, this will increase this country currency supplies quantity, and it will reduce the interest rate, and will create the wealth. This is so called the "the prosperity - decline” pattern and is the circulation of the gold remittance standard system, until the trade circulation and the gold freedom was broken by the First World War.
After several catastrophes wars, the Bretton Woods agreement has appeared. The countries which signed the treaty agreed to maintain the domestic currency to US dollar exchange rate, as well as the necessity of the corresponding ratio of the gold, and only allow a small fluctuation. Countries are prohibited to depreciate the currency value for the gain trade benefit, only allows the country to depreciate not more then 10%. Enters the 50's, the continuous growth of the international trade causes the fund large-scale shift which produces because of the postwar reconstruction, this causes Bretton Woods system which establishes the foreign exchange rate to lose stability.
This agreement was finally abolished in 1971, US dollar no longer could convert to gold. Until 1973, each major industrialized nation currency exchange rate fluctuation has been more freely, mainly regulates by the foreign exchange market through the currency supplies and demand quantity. The business volume, the transaction speed as well as the price variability, have achieved a comprehensive growth in the 1970's, come along with the emerge of price ratio fluctuation, the brand-new financial tool, then only the market liberalization and the trade liberalization could be achieved.
In the 1980s, along with the published of the computer and correlation technology, the international capital has flow rapidly, and strongly related the Asia, Europe and America market. Foreign exchange business volume from 80's rises daily from 70 billion US dollars to 150 billion US dollars after 20 years.

European market inflation
One of the reasons why the foreign exchange developed rapidly was the rapid development of the Euro dollar market. In a Euro dollar market, US dollar is stored beyond the border of America banks. Similarly, the European market is refers to property depositing outside the currency rightful owner country market. A Euro dollar market was formed at first in the 50's, at that time Russia deposited its petroleum income beyond the US border, avoid being freeze by the US government. This has formed a large offshore US dollar national treasury which is beyond the control of the US government. The American government has formulated a law to prohibited US dollar from lending money for the foreigner. Because the degree of freedom of the Euro dollar market is bigger and the rate of return is bigger, therefore it has large attraction. Starting from the 80's, the American company starts to borrow loan from the offshore market, they discovered that the European market is a wealth center which consists of large amount of floating capital which could provide short-term loan.
London once was (until now still is) one of the main offshore market. In the 80's, the Bank of England in order to maintain its global finance industry center dominant position, using US dollar as England pound substitution to make loan, thus to become a Euro dollar market center. London's convenient geographical position (is situated between Asian and Americas market) also helps to maintain the European market as the dominant position.

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